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History of UAE

History of the UAE

The earliest known human settlement in the UAE comes from Neolithic period, 5500 years BC. In this early stage is evidence of interaction with the outside world, especially with the civilization of northern Persia. These contacts further developed in all areas of business. In the first century BC started transport by camel caravans between Syria and towns in southern Iraq. For the maritime trade routes was an important port of Oman (maybe current Umm al - Qaiwain), with connections to the India. These journeys were the alternatives to the routes through the Red Sea used by the Romans.


The arrival of ambassadors of the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the year 630 AC brought the region to reverse to Islam. After the death of prophet Muhammad ended one of the major battles in the UAE at Dibba by defeat of non-Muslims and the victory of Islam in the Arabian Peninsula. In the year 637 AC was Julfar (now Ras al-Khaimah) used as a starting point for the conquest of Iran. Julfar was for many centuries a rich port and center of trade with pearls.From this port sailing boats set off to travel around the Indian Ocean.

Portuguese domination of UAE

Portugal has expanded into the Indian ocean in the early of 16th century along the way discovered by Vasca da Gama and gained dominance through technological superiority over the Persians on the shores of the Persian Gulf. Portugal controlled the area for 150 years in which conquered populations throughout the Arabian Peninsula. Vasco da Gama used help of Ahmad Ibn Majid, navigator and cartographer of Julfaru to find a way to spice from Asia.

British Rule and influence of Oman in UAE

During the 16th century part of the population of UAE came under the direct influence of the Ottoman Empire. Thanks to this was the region of UAE called by British the Coast pirates, because the pirates settled in the area attacked transport ships of European and Arab traders. Therefore, the British decided in the period since the 17th century to the 19th century to patrol the area. The British expedition in 1819 was to bring trade with India especially in the area around Ras al-Khaimah, but also around other ports in the territory of present UAE. Next year was signed a Peace Treaty, which was followed by all the sheikhs of the coast. Battles at Sea continued intermittently until 1835. In 1835 they signed contract with the British, under which the sheiks (hereinafter the Party sheikhdoms) have agreed on a permanent maritime truce. It was under the auspices of the United Kingdom, any disputes among sheikhs were resolved by British law.

In particular, in response to the ambitions of other European countries were in 1892 between the United Kingdom and sheikdoms Parties concluded similar treaties with other rulers in the Persian Gulf. Sheikhs agreed not to conclude any agreement and enter into relationships without the knowledge and consent of Britain.In return the British promised to protect the contractual sheikdoms at sea and also help the country if attacked. The British suppression of piracy meant that the fleet could sail with pearls in the relative safety. However negative aspect was, that the British ban of slave trade meant for the sheikhs significant loss of income.

The beginning of the oil era in UAE

At the beginning of 1960, the first oil company teams conduct researches, the first cost of oil was exported from Abu Dhabi in 1962. With rising oil revenues the ruler of Abu Dhabi-Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan embarked on a massive program to build schools, housing,hospitals and roads. Due to oil exports from Dubai since 1969,the ruler of Dubai - Sheikh Rashid bin Saeed al Maktoum launched the same program of development to improve the quality of life of his people.

Sheikh Zayed a Unie

At the beginning of 1960 oil was discovered in Abu Dhabi. This event led to the rapid unification and sheikhs required to establish UAE. Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan became ruler of Abu Dhabi in 1966. British started to felt the loss of oil investments and contracts for oil in America. Earlier the British based an Office which helped in establishing the United Arab Emirates. Then sheikhs decided to set up a Council to coordinate matters between them.

The original agreement included also Qatar and Bahrain. After the expiration of the the contract between sheikdoms Parties and United Kingdom in 1971, Bahrain and Qatar decided to become independent states. The rulers of Abu Dhabi and Dubai decided to create a union between their two Emirates and independently prepare Constitution. Afterward they offered the possibility of connection to another 5 emirates. Constitution was signed on February 12, 1971 and on the same day four other Emirates have consented to the entry into the Union with the name of United Arab Emirates. Ras Al-Khaimah joined later, in early 1972. After the terrorist attack on the United States on the 11th of September 2001, UAE were identified as a major financial hub of Al-Qaeda hijackers with money transfers (the two of the September 11th hijackers -Marwan al-Shehhi and Fayez Ahmed Bannihammad, who crashed the plane United 175 into the south tower of World Trade Center - were citizens of the UAE).

Government of UAE immediately start to cooperate with the U.S., froze the accounts linked to those suspected from terrorism and strongly focused on combating money laundering. UAE supported military operations of the United States and Coalition States involved in the war against Taliban in Afghanistan (2001) and Saddam Hussein in Iraq (2003) as well as operations to support the global war against terrorism for the area of Horn of Africa on Al Dhafra military air base outside Abu Dhabi. Air base also supported allied operations in the war in the Persian Gulf during the year 1991. Agreements of military defense with U.S., were signed in 1994 and with France in 1995. The first president of the UAE, Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, died on November 2, 2004.

His elldest son, Sheik Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan succeeded as a ruler of Abu Dhabi. According to the Constitution of the UAE was by the supreme council of rulers elected Khalifa as president. Sheikh Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan Khalifa, Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi was then elected as a new president of UAE. In January 2006 died prime minister and ruler of Dubai Sheikh Maktoum bin Rashid Al Maktoum. Crown prince Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum then became the new prime minister of UAE and ruler of Dubai.

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